Collection Senior Maintainer Mark Allon
Contents SĀS7 Parallels Scribes RSS1
Frame 22.1–4 Fragment 22 Other ID
Type Date 140 Basis for date C14, inscription
Medium Birch bark Findspot Haḍḍa, Afghanistan ? Last known location University of Washington, Seattle, USA
Dimensions (cm) Lines (r) 75 Lines (v) 43
Editions Allon 2007.2, 15–6 Other refs. Allon+ 2007, 282; Allon 2014, 20
Comments Transcribed by Mark Allon (2001–07).

Radiocarbon Dating of Kharoṣṭhī Fragments from the Schøyen and Senior Manuscript Collections
A Gāndhārī Version of the Simile of the Turtle and the Hole in the Yoke
The Senior Kharoṣṭhī Manuscripts

33. . . . bhayava ? eḏa[ḏ aya] sayas̱a vi bhikṣava aya mahapaḍavi

34. [eko]ḏia asa tatra puruṣ[e] ekatarmao yuo pakṣivea

35. tam eṇa purime vaḏo pac̄imo saharea pac̄imo vaḏa purime

36. saharea utare vaḏ[a] dakṣiṇo saharea dakṣiṇa va[ḏe utar]‍(*o) s[a]h[a]re[a]

37. atra hasa kaṇa kachavo vaṣaśaḏa umi[jo] vaṣaśaḏa[sa acaeṇa]

38. saha samiḏa umic[e]a

39. ta ki mañasa avi ṇaṣe kaṇo kachava vaṣi[aḏa]sa ajaeṇa saha s̱[a]‍(*m)‍[i]‐​

40. ḏa umi[jata] am[a]spi ekatarmao yuo grive pakṣivea aḏicam eḏa bhayava

41. suḏalavam eva ya eṣe kaṇo kachavo vaṣihaḏa omica vaṣihaḏasa aca[e]‐​

42. ṇa saha samiḏa

43. umijata amaspi ekatarmao yuo grive paḍi[mu]‍(*ce)a ṇa [va] paḍimu[cea]

Source: Allon 2007.2
The apparent post‐continental r (giving the reading ladhra) is likely to be a scribal flourish.
Cf. RS 5.21,27, 20.11,30.
The likely reconstruction is (*viña)ṇa.
Edited on the basis of the P tasmātiha; cf. yaspaḏ=ayi (l. 11)
For the ariasaca formula, see RS 20.19–29.
The apparent o vowel may be part of a corrected akṣara.
A space left between me and di.
The extended list ending in uttānīkaroti pakāseti pasaṃseti occurs in Nidd I 141; Paṭis‐a I 190, etc.; Vism, etc.; cf. Ud‐a 308; Ap‐a 229; etc. For a Skt. version of this passage, see NidSa §§ 14.3,5, 17.4; MPS § 19.18 (see SWTF s.v. uttānī‐k; cf. s.vv. abhi‐saṃ‐budh, ā‐khyā).
P § 20.
Reconstruct (*g̱e log̱adharma ta).
Join in the bark.
P § 21.
Space for one akṣaras left blank here and in next line below.
ma is similarly omitted on l. 33.
Frags. Al‐1 & Al‐2.
Space for one akṣara left blank here and in previous line.
The following akṣaras are very faint. The reading is based on the repetitions.
The following akṣaras are very faint. The reading is based on the repetitions.
If there is an akṣara here, the reading would have been ra.
The apparent e vowel on v is probably on a floating chip. See text commentary.
Reconstruct (*ata utarag̱a)riata.
See ada (end of line & l. 38) and a[dh]ra (l. 37). But does this word occur before bhi[kṣ.] at the end of the previous line?
Line ends short to avoid a join in the bark.
The stroke for e crosses the horizontal of v making it look like vi.
The akṣara could be a distorted dha.
There could be a horizontal mark above ja.
ta added above the line between the following ta and a.
Reconstruct (*amaïta).
ji looks like kṣi. There is a long slanting line from this akṣara to the next a.
The bottoms of the following have peeled away.
Or end of the line.
The r could be the tail of the preceding a.
Must = P andha‐ The reading could also be ata.
Line ends short.
For the following, cf. EĀ‐G 18–9.
The u vowel on ḏ is very faint, if there; the e on m may be the tail of an akṣara in the line above.
No. of akṣaras uncertain.
The could be an e vowel.
The writing ends two akṣaras short of the left margin to avoid the join between two sections of the manuscript.
Writing starts three akṣaras in.
The ms. is split, but there appears to be no lower horizontal on sti.
Or read [ṇai].
There is also an e vowel on ro; cf. ṇo in kaṇo (l. 44) which also has an e vowel.
ya added above the line between the following vi and ña. But it must have been intended here (= ca).
kha as been corrected.
Could be i. If so, this and the fact that the scribe wrote mi rather than me suggests that it is a confusion with ithuami.
There may be a faint e.
Cf. the last line on the verso. Perhaps read as one word aviṇadiḏa (ppp. ?).
Writing ends five akṣaras short.
A space may have been left between this and the previous line to avoid a join in the ms.
For this line, see text commentary.
Cf. Jā IV 240.15, the same Jā in which the verse on ll. 73–4 is found: yena putte ca dāre ca, dhanadhaññaṃ piyāni ca.
The dark vertical stroke at the end of the next line may be the bottom of a further akṣara of this line.
For the following, see text commentary.
The dark vertical that looks like the top of a la is probably the bottom of an akṣara of the previous line.
This looks like it should be the ending of the word that ended the previous line [apavi] ?. The P sequence has appādhikaraṇo.
Cf. pāda b anuṣṭubh hiraññaṃ dhanadhāniyaṃ (Sn 307b).
Or read ña as ta a?
The akṣara has been corrected. Could it be a du going with what follows? Alternatively, it may be an erased akṣara, which may be supported by the fact that the pāda has nine syllables if it is counted.
Perhaps the meaning of this and the previous line is “having little trouble, etc., this is hard to obtain for men, while gold or wealth are easy to obtain” (?).
Or read kṣa as ce.
Or read kṣa as vi ra.
Cf. P pāda d anuṣṭubh sabbaṃ chindati bandhanaṃ which appears in four verses in the SN (I 39–40). Skt. nirvāṇābhirato bhikṣuś chinatti bhavabandhanam (Uv 10.6cd); ātmanā hi sudāntena sarvaṃ chinatti bandhanam (Uv 19.10cd; 23.22cd);
Line ends short, coinciding with a join in the manuscript.
Cf. P verse dukkho punabbhavo Sakka, sarīrassa ca bhedanaṃ, sammohamaraṇaṃ dukkhaṃ, tasmā sammāmi Vāsava (Jā IV 240); and rahogato nisīditvā, evaṃ cintes’ ahaṃ tadā, ‘dukkho punabbhavo nāma, sarīrassa ca bhedanaṃ’ (Jā I 3; Bv p. 9); sarīrassa ca bhedanaṃ (Dhp 138b). These are quoted in several commentaries. Skt. Uv 28.28ab: vedanāṃ kaṭukāṃ vāpi śarīrasya ca bhedanam.
There are overlapping fragments with writing on them which probably do not belong here. Frags. Ca‐2 & Ca‐3 may have the remnants of the expected maraṇa and the bottom of the preceeding bhedaṇa.
śa could also be read as ya or a, though the parallel makes this unlikely.
Kośia = P kosiya, another name of Sakka (see DPPN s.vv. Sakka and Kosiya). The P version has Vāsava.
Could this be aviṇa‐ = abhinna‐?
Cf. satthā imaṃ jātakaṃ āharitvā tassa upāsakassa sokasallaṃ samuddharitvā upari saccāni pakāsesi, saccapariyosāne upāsako sotāpattiphale patiṭṭhahīti (Pv 66).
samato = samanta‐ “all, entire” adv. “completely” or samāpta‐ “accomplished” “completed” (as with the ms. entries for conclusions to suttas, etc.).
Only a few lines of the beginning of the sūtra are missing, for which see Senior 7.17.
Reconstruct va(*demi).
P § 5.
P § 6.
For this and ll. 7–8, cf. P sassatisamaṃ tatheva ṭhassati? which is added to this list in several of the other P suttas in this vagga: (nos. 22.96 [III 143–4], 22.97–8 [III 147–9]. G śaśpaḏe = P sassata‐/Skt. śaśvat‐.
The word should be the equivalent of P dhuva‐. What appears to be a post‐consonantal r on dh may be the tail of the preceding ca. The reading could also be dru or du.
Probably [ta].
Reconstruct (*sa)m(*a)ḏ(*a).
The horizontal stroke on ṇa is very long.
P § 13.
Should be the beginning of the line.
Must be top of ṇa.
The upper layer of bark has peeled, removing the following akṣaras.
Tops of the following have peeled away. Reconstruct (*viña)ṇ(*a) a(ṇica d)ukha.
Reconstruct (*log̱e pa)ḍiḏaṇa.
P § 18.
Should be sa.
P § 19.
The reading of these two akṣaras is based on the expected reading.
The first fragment (top left) in the Misc. frags. frame may go here. The reading is /// ?/m. va g̱achati ya ///.
The reading of the following could be [g̱.ch.ti.].
Could be s[e].
[dr.], if that is the reading, is badly written.
Could be t/d.
The second fragment (top left) in the Misc. frags. frame may go here. The reading is /// ṇa g̱acha ///.
Could be bottom of r of expected sakhara.
The full nidāna occurs in Senior 7.7.
Frag. Ab‐2 verso. No. of akṣaras uncertain.
Frag. Ab‐2 verso.
yi could be śi/pi, but cf. taspaḏ=ayi, l. 53.
The line ends short, which coincides with a join of two sections of bark.
Cf. l. 24, etc., and see text commentary.
The reading should be sabataḏi ṇa/ṇo ya labhati, but the remnants of akṣaras do not appear to work.
Could be da/ḏa.
Number of remnant akṣaras uncertain. Missing (*eva me) or (*eva va) (cf. l. 16)?
Missing (*va aṇica).
Should be iḏa (cf. l. 22).
Missing (*ṇa aṇica).
Old form of ka.
Frag. Ag‐4.
Probably end of the line.
va appears to have been written over ya.
Frag. Ag‐4.
Missing (*ṇica).
Frag. Ag‐3.
Missing (*viparaṇama‐).
SN III 49.14.
Could be mo.
Could be ṣe.
Cf. P evaṃ passaṃ.
Missing (*sakhare‐).
There appears to be no o vowel on bh.
P nāparam.
The P has itthattāyā ti pajānātī ti (BHS itthatva); cf. ithuami (ll. 14, 24).
There appears to be no e vowel on v.
Probably the end of the line.
Perhaps a mistaken and partially written akṣara.
Space of one akṣara left blank.
There appears to be a faint tail on ta which makes it look line ḏa.
Probably nothing.
ḏa could be read as ha. Cf. iḏam=eya (verso, line 42), iḏam=eyi (5.21), hiḏam=eyi (5.27), iḏam=oyi (20.11), iḏam=eya (20.30).
Could be the end of the line.
This appears as a faint short line of writing at the top right of the second section of bark, which would have been hidden when the two sections were originally joined together. It is unclear what this represents.
Old type of k.
A space of one akṣara has been left blank between bha and ya where the scribe has avoided writing over the vertical line of stitching that reinforces the join between two sections of bark.
A loose chip with a remnant of a letter covers the tops of the following two akṣaras. The reading was probably aṇa.
Porbably the end of the line.
The akṣaras ya kutra[ï] ka could also be read as śa ṣu ḏa i ṣa.
This should be the end of the line.
Cf. l. 50 and RS 22.4.
The reading could be pu rather than pa, though it would be unexpected.
The reading pu.uṣ is guided by the reading on l. 51.
Frags. B+Be‐2.
Frag. B.
Cf. P v.l. tatiyaṃ.
The apparent e mātrā could be a hole.
Line ends three akṣaras short of the left margin to avoid a join between two sections of bark.
The imprint (mirror image) of this and the next line has been left on the verso, just after the last line of writing.
An alternative reading is a.
(join between two sections of bark)
On the next slat of bark there appears an impression (in mirror image) of the writing of recto, lines 51 and 52. Other traces of such transfers are found lower down on the remaining blank bark.